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ANGINA: CAUSES | SYMPTOMS | RISK FACTORS | TREATMENT AND DRUGS

Health  |  2022-7-4 07:12 315

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Angina is a medical term used to describe the Chest pain caused by reduced volume of blood flowing to the heart especially the muscles.
  
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Angina is generally described as either squeezing or pressure or heaviness or tightness or pain experienced in your heart or chest region(thorax).

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Angina, which is also called Angina pectoris, can either be a recurring problem or a sudden, acute health concern.

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Angina although common can be hard to differentiate from other types of Chest pain, such as the pain or discomfort from Indigestion.

SYMPTOMS
The Symptoms  of Angina includes:           

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* Chest pain or discomfort
* Pain in the arms, neck, jaw, shoulder or back
* Nausea/vomiting
* Fatigue(serious/recurring tiredness)
* Shortness of breath
* Sweating & Dizziness(loss of balance or Consciousness)

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CAUSES
Angina is caused by reduced blood flow to the heart.  The  blood cells carries oxygen, which the tissues and organs of the body especially the  heart muscle needs to survive. When the volume of oxygen via the blood reaching the heart muscles is not enough,, it causes a condition known as ischemia.

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The most common cause of reduced blood flow to your heart muscle is Coronary artery disease (CAD). Your heart (coronary) arteries can become narrowed by deposits called plaques. This is called atherosclerosis.

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This reduced blood flow is a supply problem — your heart is not getting enough oxygen-rich blood. You may wonder why you don't always have Angina if your heart arteries are narrowed due to fatty buildup. This is because during times of low oxygen demand — when you're resting, for example — your heart muscle may be able to get by on the reduced amount of blood flow without triggering Angina symptoms. But when you increase the demand for oxygen, such as when you exercise, this can cause Angina.

Stable Angina: Stable Angina is usually triggered by physical exertion/activities. When you perform any physical activity, your heart demands more blood, but it's harder for the muscle to get enough blood when the walls of your arteries are narrowed. Apart from the physical activities, other factors, such as emotional stress, cold temperatures, heavy meals and smoking, also can cause narrowing of arteries and hence, will trigger Angina.

Unstable Angina. If fat-containing deposits (plaques) in a blood vessel rupture, causing the blood to clot, it will  block or impede the flow through a narrowed artery, suddenly and severely and thus, decreasing blood flow to the heart muscles. This type of Angina worsens and is not relieved by rest or the  usual medications. If the flow of blood does not improve, then the  heart muscles become increasingly deprived of Oxygen and hence dies . This condition is known as a Heart attack. Unstable Angina is very dangerous and requires emergency treatment.
  
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Variant Angina: Variant Angina is caused by a temporarily narrowing of the coronary artery because of a spasm. This narrowing impedes blood flow to the heart, thereby causing Chest pain. Variant Angina can occur even when you're at rest, and is often severe. However, It can be relieved with medications.

RISK FACTORS
You are at increased risk of developing Angina because of these:

Tobacco use: Chewing tobacco, smoking and long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (inhaling the smoke from the smokers of tobacco), damages the interior walls of the arteries — especially those of your heart — allowing deposits of cholesterol to collect and slow down or cut off blood flow.

Diabetes: Diabetes is the condition in which your body can no longer produce enough insulin or respond to insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas and it's work is to help the body use glucose, which is a form of sugar from foods. Diabetes increases the risk of Coronary artery disease, which can lead to Angina and Heart attacks by speeding up atherosclerosis(narrowing of the arteries).

High blood pressure. Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood the heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. Over time, high blood pressure damages arteries.
High blood cholesterol: Cholesterol is a major part of the deposits that can narrow arteries throughout your body, including those that supply your heart. A high level of bad cholesterol, known as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, increases your risk of Angina and Heart attacks.

History of Heart disease. If you have had Coronary artery disease or if you've had a Heart attack, you're at a greater risk of developing Angina.
Older age. Men older than 45 and women older than 55 are at higher risk than the younger ones
Lack of exercise. An inactive/sedentary lifestyle contributes to High cholesterol, high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes and Obesity.

Obesity. Obesity raises the risk of Angina and Heart disease because it's associated with high blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and Diabetes. Also, your heart has to work harder to supply blood to the excess tissue.

Stress. Stress can increase your risk of Angina and Heart attacks. Too much stress, as well as anger, can also raise your blood pressure. Surges of hormones produced during stress can narrow your arteries and worsen Angina.

TREATMENTS AND DRUGS
There are many options for Angina treatment, including lifestyle changes, medications, angioplasty and stenting, or coronary bypass surgery. The goals of treatment are to reduce the frequency and severity of your symptoms and to lower your risk of Heart attack and death.

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However, if you have unstable Angina or Angina pain that's different from what you usually have, such as occurring when you're at rest, you need immediate treatment in a hospital.

Lifestyle changes
If your Angina is mild, lifestyle changes may be all you need to do. Even if your Angina is severe, making lifestyle changes can still help. These changes include the following:
  
* If you smoke, stop smoking. Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke.
* If you're overweight, talk to your doctor about weight-loss options.
* If you have Diabetes, make sure that it is well-controlled and that you're following an optimal diet and exercise plan.
* Because Angina is often brought on by exertion, it's helpful to pace yourself and take rest breaks.
* Avoid large meals.
* Avoiding stress is easier said than done, but try to find ways to relax. Talk with your doctor about stress-reduction techniques.
* Eat a healthy diet with lots of whole grains, many fruits and vegetables, and less  amounts of saturated fat(which contains the "bad" cholesterol)

MEDICATIONS
If lifestyle changes alone doesn't help your Angina, you may need to take medications. These may include:

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Nitrates. Nitrates are often used to treat Angina. Nitrates relax and widen your blood vessels, allowing more blood to flow to your heart muscle. You might take a nitrate when you have Angina-related chest discomfort, before doing something that normally triggers Angina (such as physical exertion), or on a long-term preventive basis. The most common form of nitrate used to treat Angina is with nitroglycerin tablets put under your tongue.

Aspirin: Aspirin reduces the ability of your blood to clot, making it easier for blood to flow through narrowed heart arteries. Preventing blood clots can also reduce your risk of a Heart attack. But don't start taking a daily aspirin without talking to your doctor first.

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Clot-preventing drugs: Certain medications, such as clopidogrel (Plavix), prasugrel (Effient) and Ticagrelor (Brilinta), can help prevent blood clots from forming by making your blood platelets less likely to stick together.

Beta blockers : Beta blockers work by blocking the effects of the hormone epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. As a result, the heart beats more slowly and with less force, thereby reducing blood pressure. Beta blockers also help blood vessels relax and open up to improve blood flow, thus reducing or preventing Angina.

Statins:  Statins are drugs used to lower blood cholesterol. They work by blocking a substance your body needs to make cholesterol. They may also help your body reabsorb cholesterol that has accumulated in plaques in your artery walls, helping prevent further blockage in your blood vessels. Statins also have many other beneficial effects on your heart arteries.

Calcium channel blockers: Calcium channel blockers, also called calcium antagonists, relax and widen blood vessels by affecting the muscle cells in the arterial walls. This increases blood flow in your heart, reducing or preventing Angina.

Ranolazine (Ranexa): Ranexa can be used alone or with other Angina medications, such as calcium channel blockers, beta blockers or nitroglycerin. Unlike some other Angina medications, Ranexa can be used if you're taking oral Erectile dysfunction medications.

Medical procedures and surgery
Lifestyle changes and medications are frequently used to treat stable Angina. But when these fail to treat the Angina or is less effective, then procedures, such as angioplasty, stenting and coronary artery bypass surgery, will are used to treat Angina.

Angioplasty and stenting. During an angioplasty — also called a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) — a tiny balloon is inserted into your narrowed artery. The balloon is inflated to widen the artery, and then a small wire mesh coil (stent) is usually inserted to keep the artery open. This procedure improves blood flow in your heart, reducing or eliminating Angina. Angioplasty and stenting is a good treatment option if you have unstable Angina or if lifestyle changes and medications don't effectively treat your chronic, stable Angina.

Coronary artery bypass surgery: During coronary artery bypass surgery, a vein or artery from somewhere else in your body is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed heart artery. Bypass surgery increases blood flow to your heart and reduces or eliminates Angina. It's a treatment option for both unstable Angina and stable Angina that has not responded to other treatments.

LIFESTYLE AND HOME REMEDIES

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You can also help to prevent Angina by making the same lifestyle changes that might improve your symptoms if you already have Angina. These include:

* Quitting smoking
* Monitoring and controlling other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, High cholesterol and
* Diabetes
* Eating a healthy diet

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* Increasing your physical activity
* Maintaining a healthy weight
* Reducing your stress level.

HAVE A PROSPEROUS NEW WEEK!!
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Dr. AAO 5 #

really helpful thanks
2022-7-27 09:55 Like(0)

Mikkyrhap 3 #

Nice
2022-7-4 23:46 Like(0)

Ashley11 2 #

Thanks a lot for this💙
it was helpful!

wish you a fulfilling week ahead💙💪
2022-7-4 19:22 Like(0)

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